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Fundamental Duties Part 4

Reference : Dr Javed Jamil

A Systematic Study of the Holy Qur’an-14

Fundamental Duties Part 4



Part 4


VII.  To enjoin justice


Justice is the most powerful arsenal for defeating chaos of all types in society. Justice must not only be done but must also be seen done. Furthermore, it must be achieved swiftly. Any system of justice that denies justice to the victims of crime or unduly delays it cannot ensure social peace. The present legal systems all over the world have dismally failed to safeguard life and honour of the people. On the contrary, this has helped, directly and indirectly, the cause of criminals and the forces of evils. It looks advanced in method but extremely poor in results. It appears to profess humanity but promotes inhumanity. It has increased the crime rate to dangerous levels and has been transforming in increasing numbers good human beings into criminals. Islamic system of justice is based on speedy trial and a punishment equal to the crime with right to pardon only in the hands of the victims or the heirs of victims. In sharp contrast to the modern system that safeguards the interests of criminals, Islam primarily aims at bringing justice to both victims and convicts. Justice is also to be ensured at the international level; there must be ways to guarantee that small and weak nations do not suffer at the hands of powerful nations.


“Justice” in Quran

No compromises in justice


Say: “My Lord hath commanded justice.” ( 7: 29 /A)

O ye who believe! stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to God, even as against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, and whether it be (against) rich or poor: for God can best protect both. Follow not the lusts (of your hearts), lest ye swerve, and if ye distort (justice) or decline to do justice, verily God is well-acquainted with all that ye do. (4: 135/A)


..speak justly, even if a near relative is concerned... (6: 152/A)

O ye who believe! stand out firmly for God, as   witnesses to fair dealing, and let not the hatred of    others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. Be just: that is next to piety...(5: 8/A)

Judge fairly or don’t judge!

If they do come to thee, either judge between them, or decline to interfere. If thou decline, they cannot hurt thee in the least. If thou judge, judge in equity between them. For God loveth those who judge in equity. ( 5: 42 /A)

Judge thou between them by what God hath revealed, and follow not their vain desires..( 5: 49 /A)


VIII.  To enjoin good and forbid evil

Though all religions censure vices, it is amr bil maruf (active promotion of good activities) and nahi anil munkar (aggressive campaign against unacceptable actions) that distinguish Islam from the others. Islam does not want its followers to be passive spectators. It categorically declares that the series of the Prophets of God culminated at Muhammad (Peace be upon him!), and it is now the duty of each and every Muslim to carry the torch of guidance to the whole of the world. God wants Muslims to act as activepropagators of justice, peace, equality and righteousness; and as ceaselesscampaigners against chaos, social evils, corruption, crimes, oppression and exploitation.


Forces of evils are at work with impunity in society, as there are none to keep them at bay. They have vested interests in the widespread dissemination of vices. People tend to fall victim to their designs, as they strike at the most glaring susceptibilities of human nature. In the absence of any incentives in sight for good, righteous and charitable deeds the number of those inclined to conduct in an admirable way continues to decrease. Crimes, social tensions and all forms of addiction are on the rise. To counter this special efforts have to be organised individually, collectively and politically. Championing the good and campaigning against evils must involve efforts at every level—local, state, national and international. Each and every social institution—clergy, intellectuals, academic institutions, media, courts, social and welfare organisations, executive machinery of the countries, international organisations like UNO, WHO, NAM, SAARC and Arab League must contribute to this exercise; those that do not take active part in this war against vices must be sidelined. Though Muslims must play the leading role, they must not forget to seek active co-operation from all religious communities.  They must run this campaign in an organised, relentless and dauntless way; data must be collected to assess the situation, to bring awareness and to counter the propaganda of the forces of evils. The world must be told in no uncertain terms that no short-term or half-hearted measures will suffice to counter the vices that endanger human health, destroy family peace and threaten social order. There is no place for chaos and things and practices that spread chaos in a civilised world.



“Enjoining Good and Forbidding Evil” in Quran


 Away from ignorant

Let there arise out of you a band of people inviting to all that is good, enjoining what is right, and forbidding what is wrong...(3: 104/A)

Hold to forgiveness; command what is right; but turn away from the ignorant. (7: 199/A)

Ye are the best of peoples, evolved for mankind, enjoining what is right, forbidding what is wrong... (3: 110/A)


IX.    To invite to Way of God


Quran categorically declares that the system it spells for mankind is the final version of the way shown by God to the world through thousands of prophets. This system, being from God and “perfected” by Him for all times to come, must be propagated to the every nook and corner of the world. Every human being has the right to know about it and it is the duty of Muslims to invite everybody living on the earth to the Path of Peace. If they fail in their duty, God may punish them for the dereliction of duty, and they can be held responsible for the disbelief or ignorance of non-Muslims.

Real peace can be established only if the whole system submits to the commands of God; but this has to be achieved through gentle and effectiveways of preaching. None but God can provide the guidelines of the best possible system. The world has to be convinced that Qur’an indeed provides that system. This has to be done through proper articulation of the message of God, persuasive argumentation, analysis of the current system, its weaknesses and the superiority of Islamic system in eradicating the problems of the current world. All forms of media must be availed for this purpose. This is important because the media are in control of the forces that bank upon everything that Islam detests; they have sophisticated ways of propagating their ideology, and if they are to be defeated they have to be confronted through an ideological warfare. Muslims must use the same sophistication and skills in promoting their viewpoint. With the natural supremacy of their system, they will emerge victorious, even with one third the arsenal used by the opponents.

Propagation in Qur’an

Invite (all) to the Way of thy Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching; and argue with them in ways that are best and most gracious...(16: 125/A)



X.  To learn, research and teach


Learning and researching are extremely important, as these discover orinvent not only the paths to progress but also the ways to thwart the designs of the enemies of peace. If Muslims have lost in the last two centuries the domination they used to have in the last millennium, one of the major factors has been the giving up of initiative on the intellectual front. Squeezing of research to theological domains, inability to focus on innovative researches and the failure to first initiate and then keep pace with the technological progress of the rest of the world have put them on the defensive. Despite being acknowledged as “forefathers” of the modern sciences, Muslims have now slipped far behind in the intellectual ascent of mankind. The inability of Muslims to concentrate on scientific researches, coupled with the loss of political domination has provided economic fundamentalism an easy platform to utilise scientific discoveries and innovations in highly unethical, immoral and devastating ways. The result has been that much more has been ravished from the masses than what they have been bestowed upon. We are now living in a world where peace and prosperity have become each other’s detractors.  Had this huge scientific and intellectual advancement taken placeunder the umbrella of Islam, peace and prosperity could have become friends rather than foes.

It is clear from the verses of Quran that researches in all the spheres of life are part of Ilm (Knowledge). The gnosis of God cannot be achieved unless the functioning of the Universe, the way God created it and the way it functions is studied. Physics, Chemistry, Biology and most of the other sciences are the studies of the laws of nature promulgated by God and their application for the benefit of mankind. This is another matter that the development of sciences under the umbrella of Economics seems to have turned sciences atheistic. Muslims must learn these sciences, develop them further and bring forth before masses the truth that sciences point to a single set of universal laws, which proves that the universe is a unique State having a unique Emperor. 

“Learning and Research” in Qur’an


Study of System
… if a contingent from every expedition remained behind, they could devote themselves to studies in  religion, and admonish the people when they return to them....(9: 122/A) (Religion can better be translated as”system”)




“Travel through the earth and see what was the end of those who rejected Truth.” (6: 11/A)


Do they not travel through the land, so that their hearts (and minds) may thus learn wisdom and their ears may thus learn to hear? (22: 46/A)

“Travel through the earth and see how God did  originate creation...(29: 20/A)


Natural Sciences

See they not what is before them and behind them, of the sky and the earth? (34: 9/A)

See ye the water, which ye drink? (56: 68/A)

See ye the Fire, which ye kindle? (56: 71/A)


Do they not look at the birds, held poised in the midst of (the air and) the sky? (16: 79/A)
Seest thou not that it is God Whose praises all beings in the heavens and on earth do celebrate, and the birds (of the air) with wings outspread? Each one knows its own (mode of) prayer and praise. And God knows well all that they do. (24: 41/A)


Seest thou not that God created the heavens and the earth in Truth? If He so will, He can remove you and put (in your place) a new creation? (14: 19/A)

Seest thou not that God makes the clouds move gently, then joins them together, then makes them into a heap? - then wilt thou see rain issue forth from their midst. And He sends down from the sky mountain masses (of clouds) wherein is hail: He strikes therewith whom He pleases and He turns it away from whom He pleases, the vivid lash of His lightning well-nigh blinds the sight.  (24: 43/A)


Seest thou not that God merges Night into Day and he merges Day into Night; that He has subjected the sun, and the moon (to his Law), each running its course for a term appointed; and that God is well-acquainted with all that ye do? (31: 29/A)

Seest thou not that God sends down rain from the sky, and forthwith the earth becomes clothed with green? For God is He Who understands the finest mysteries, and is well-acquainted (with them). (22: 63/A)


XI.  To foster unity and brotherhood

Unity and brotherhood are the navigators of the same ship that brings peace to the shores. Qur’an reminds mankind of the unity of their origin, the unity of their Creator and the unity of their purpose. Mankind is one brotherhood and no effort must be spared in realising this unity in real life. If Qur’an calls for the brotherhood of Muslims, it is also aimed at uniting not for confronting the rest but for the purpose of endeavouring to achieve the larger unification.

Unity is essential for every objective. If it is for a bad cause it spells doom; if it is for a good cause it augurs well for the posterity. Islam reminds mankind that its ultimate objective of unity must be to achieve, groom and sustain peace in its entirety, and that this grand aim can be realised only through total submission to God, His Last Prophet and His Last Book. Unity of mankind should be sought at every stratum of organisation -- individual to individual, community to community and country to country.

“Unity and Brotherhood” in Qur’an

Single Brotherhood

Verily, this brotherhood of yours is a single brotherhood, and I am your Lord and Cherisher: therefore serve Me (and no other).  But (later generations) cut off their affair (of unity), one from another: (yet) will they all return to Us. (21: 92-93/A)

Avoid divisions

…..Let there arise out of you a band of people inviting to all that is good, enjoining what is right, and forbidding what is wrong: They are the ones to attain felicity.  Be not like those who are divided amongst themselves and fall into disputations after receiving Clear Signs...               (3: 104-105/A)

O mankind, We have created you from a male and female, and set you up as nations and tribes so you may recognise [and co-operate with] one another. The noblest among you with God is that one of you who best performs his duty...(49: 13/A)

Unity important

And hold fast, all together, by the rope which God (stretches out for you), and be not divided among   yourselves...(3: 103/A)

In most of their secret talks there is no good: But if one exhorts to a deed of charity or justice or conciliation between men, (secrecy is permissible). To him who does this, seeking the good pleasure of God, We shall soon give a reward of the highest (value).   (4: 114/A)


…who (conduct) their affairs by mutual Consultation...(42: 38/A)


XII.   To keep Chaste and Modesty 


Guard Modesty

And say to the believing women that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty; that they should not display their beauty and ornaments except what (must ordinarily) appear thereof; that they should draw their veils over their bosoms and not display their beauty except to their husbands, their fathers, their husband’s fathers, their sons, their husbands’ sons, their brothers or their brothers’ sons, or their sisters’ sons, or their women, or the slaves whom their right hands possess, or male servants free of physical needs, or small children who have no sense of the shame of sex; and that they should not strike their feet in order to draw attention to their hidden ornaments. (24: 31/A)


O Prophet! Tell thy wives and daughters, and the believing women, that they should cast their outer  garments over their persons (when abroad): that is most convenient, that they should be known (as such) and not molested. (33: 59/A)

Say to the believing men that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty: that will make for greater purity for them: and God is well acquainted with all that they do. (24: 30/A)


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